Patriotvalleyarms. These barrels are the award winning, PVA exclusive, hand lappe...

Feb 12, 2023 · The Shockwave comes in several of the most popu

Sales items down to $19. Patriot Valley Arms Gift Card for $100. Save up to 10% off on Tripods, Bipods, Misc. Parts at Patriot Valley Arms. Last Chance | receive 5% on Sales. Save 16% with our Patriot Valley Arms Promo Code & Coupon Code at Valuecom.com. 100% working Patriot Valley Arms Discount Code, updated and …Barrels: Cut Rifling vs. Button Rifling. Our barrels come in two forms: cut rifled and button rifled. The price difference is simply the cost difference paid to our primary barrel supplier, Rock Creek. We pay $125 more for a cut rifled blank so we charge $125 more for it. They charge more for it because it takes substantially longer to produce ...The Trajectory Normalizing Factor is a seemingly simple approach developed by myself to perform this exact task quickly and effortlessly when discussing caliber options with customers and friends for rifle building needs. There are 2 basic inputs that are required and we can ignore a lot of the others that we need for the ballistic calculators. Patriot Valley Arms is a custom manufacturer in Exton, PA. We specialize in precision platforms... 792 Dorlan Mill Rd, Downingtown, PA, US 19335Barrel Nut Prefits. Barrel nut installation barrels for Ruger American, TIkka T3 family, Savage small shank, Remington 700 (Remage) These barrels are fixed options with no customization. The quantities are limited each month to 25 barrels. When they're gone, they're gone til the next month without backorder. Customers looking for something more ... Patriot Valley Arms. January 22, 2018 · Here is the first John Hancock rifle in the hands of Ted from American Rifle Company! This rifle is chambered in 6mm BR! Come check this out st booth #20459!! *Note, cases fit fine, our dummy rounds are loaded too long are are jamming into the lands.See the Patriot Valley Arms article on TNF. Seneca G7 BC = 0.461. 250gr Jacketed bullet G7 BC = 0.426. For a 2,950 fps Seneca load we have a TNF value of 0.461*2950=1357. To equate that TNF value with the 250gr bullet it would need to be traveling at least 3,190 fps!Patriot Valley Arms Prefit Barrels Announcement and Testing | Sniper's Hide Forum. The Sniper's Hide App is here! Download the app DOWNLOAD. So I just got a call from Josh at Patriot Valley Arms letting me know they will now start offering prefits. He said he has their very first prefit barrel ready for me for testing in 6.5x47 Lapua at 26".Welcome to the official athletic website for the Patriot Warriors. Stay up to date with Patriot Sports schedules, team rosters, photos, updates and more.The Sniper's Hide App is here! Download the app DOWNLOAD. We ordered a PV40 tripod from Patriot Valley Arms and did not receive the ball head. My wife called on the Monday before Christmas and spoke to the owner to make sure it would arrive in time for Christmas. He said that they were confident that it would arrive before Christmas and that ...Available in Black Nitrite and Stainless. The Jet Blast is 1″ OD x 2.4″ long and accepts up to 0.8″ of thread engagement on the muzzle. The Jet Blast is the latest addition to Patriot Valley Arm's muzzle brake line-up.The Jet Blast ports are optimized for precision rifles and aid in precision and shootability. They are easy to install and ... Aug 17, 2023 · Stealth Arms 1911 Platypus17 9mm Tactical, Trijicon RMRcc Red Dot Optic Cut, FDE and Black, Compatible With Glock® 17 Style Magazines FFL Item. $ 1,999.99. SALE! All three are terrific rifles, but the John Hancock from Patriot Valley Arms emerged as the best of the bunch and nabbed the Editor’s Choice award at this year’s test. To qualify for Production Class, a rifle must cost less than $2,000. But to be competitive, it must be accurate, rugged, adjustable for different shooting positions, and ...Typically the barrel cleans up in about 6-10 patches on the first 5 rounds and about 3 patches on the 11-15th rounds fired. Once Steps 1-5 have been accomplished the barrel is “broken-in” as far as fouling is concerned and cleaning is only necessary as the group sizes of the rifle dictate that cleaning needs to be performed again.Origin actions are cut with the Bighorn trim tang which is most similar to Remington 700 actions. The Origin bolt handle is swept to mimic the Remington 700 as well. Origin actions come with 20 MOA rails only. Coupled with one of PVA's award winning barrels this is a potent combo. Starting at only $1475 the Origin barreled action can be ...The Patriot Valley Arms "Minuteman" barreled action is a turn-key core for a high performance long range rifle. The configuration is defined by years of dedicated long range experience in various competition, training, and hunting environments.This is a 1-1/4" diameter brake, self timing, progressive port design that cuts recoil and muzzle rise for even the biggest magnum cartridges like the 338 Lapua, 338 Norma, 300 Norma, 300 PRC and others. Imagine if you will, taking a 17lb super magnum like a 300 Norma and being able to spot your trace and impacts on a PRS Skills Stage barricade. The Patriot Valley Arms Barrel Nut System is designed for the DIY barrel change enthusiast. This barrel nut allows for a Tikka T3 owner to install a new barrel on their receiver in a matter of minutes with a modicum of tools.Patriot Valley Arms. November 25, 2019 ·. Paradigm Carbon barrels are launching soon and we're putting out a crazy sale for prefits to get them out fast! We also have 50 blanks stacked and organized for the standard prefit sale this weekend. All the steel prefits are guaranteed to ship by Dec 20 and Carbon prefits are shipping 1st week of January.The Cayuga Copper hunting bullets and the Seneca Solid match bullets are designed to be forgiving for many different chambers and have opened the door to factory ammunition options. The recommended velocity range for hunting projectiles is 1600+ fps at impact. They are designed to work in big animals with heavy bone structure.Contact Us Shop by Category Home Sales! Sales! In-stock items on sale Sort By: Jet4 Muzzle Brake $139.00 Choose Options Self-timing Rugged Suppressor Mount $144.95 Out of stock PVA Minuteman T-Shirt $19.99 Choose Options Jet Blast Muzzle Brake $125.00 Choose Options The K624i is the perfect example of innovation and quality derived from 116 years’ experience building the world’s finest rifle scopes. Designed for applications where the purest optical clarity can mean the difference between a hit or miss; this optic sets new standards with incredible resolution, contrast, and 95% light transmission.Patriot Valley Arms. Close to View Results Filter. Hide Filters Show Filters Other In Stock (1) Sort By: Quick view View Options. Patriot Valley Arms Custom Pre Fit Service. $375.00. Patriot Valley Arms. Close ×. OK. Newsletter Signup. Email Address. Footer Start. Categories ...The Jet Blast Muzzle brake comes in a three port design, with baffles directed to the sides and back. The Jet 4 brakes have an additional port for a total of four, giving additional braking force. Both three and four port brakes are available with an up to 6.5mm bore, or an up to .308 bore, this gives most shooters a close enough option for ...Osprey's are, in a nutshell, a high end precision rifle barrel blank. The blanks are 100% produced on modern CNC equipment from 416R CReS (Corrosion Resistant Steel) aka Stainless. They are 6 groove barrels with a proprietary cross section profile that shoots long, heavy for caliber, precision rifle bullets extremely well with an advantage ...Product Description. The "Cayuga" series is a turned copper projectile designed with the most demanding hunters in mind. These projectiles are the epitome of long range, precision hunting performance with their high BC, lower weight and sleek profiles. The bullet designs are all measured via acoustic chronograph and/or Doppler radar for the ...11-Oct-2020 ... My buddy is selling his Patriot Valley Arms PRS rifle in 6.5 Creedmoor for $3500.00. He paid over 6k without optics.Product Description. The Smokeless Muzzle Loader revolution is well underway, never before have muzzle loaders been so easy to load, shoot and accurately hit targets out at 500-1500 yards. We have built on the …Patriot Valley Arms official website is https://patriotvalleyarms.com. Patriot Valley Arms information. Founded Dec 30, 2016 Platform BigCommerce Category Firearms & Weapons Estimated Monthly Sales 101K-200K Return Policy View return policy Website https://patriotvalleyarms.com. Patriot Valley Arms Competitors. L.Product Description. Pre-fit match barrels are the way of the future and PVA has been a fundamental driver of the market in Prefits since 2014. We have streamlined the ordering process to make it easy, quick and organized. Our match prefits have been winning matches, setting records and harvesting game for years.Patriot Valley Arms Custom Pre Fit Service. Patriot Valley Arms. $375.00. or 4 interest-free payments of $93.75 with. ⓘ. (No reviews yet) Write a Review. Action: Cartridge/Reamer: Barrel Length (Stainless Steel ONLY):We strongly recommend shipping insurance for the cost of your firearms and you must send it SIGNATURE REQUIRED. If you have any questions feel free to mail us at [email protected] or call at 484-696-7874.Jet4 Muzzle Brake. The "Jet4" is the latest addition to Patriot Valley Arms' popular muzzle brake line-up. It brings a welcome addition to the line of brakes known for excellent recoil reduction, easy installation, and excellent manufacturing quality.The Sniper's Hide App is here! Download the app DOWNLOAD. Osprey Barrel Works is a new offering through Patriot Valley Arms. They barrels are 100% CNC produced from double stress relieved 416RR CReS (Stainless). Right now they're available in 22, 6mm, 6.5mm in the associated fast twists required for modern rifle bullets. As …Patriot Valley Arms is a custom manufacturer in Exton, PA. We specialize in precision platforms... 792 Dorlan Mill Rd, Downingtown, PA, US 19335The Patriot Valley Arms flagship rifle, the John Hancock, is chambered in a handful of 6- and 6.5-caliber cartridges. Jeremy Jones, a spokesman for the small Pennsylvania-based gun and parts maker ...The "Jet Blast" is the latest addition to Patriot Valley Arms' popular muzzle brake line-up. It brings a welcome addition to the line of brakes known for excellent recoil reduction, easy installation, and excellent manufacturing quality. The "Jet Blast" ports are optimized for precision rifles and approved for use up to 300 Win Mag to reduce ...In-stock, ready to ship prefits from the premier prefit company in the market; Patriot Valley Arms with Osprey Barrel Works. We are filling the shelves with some standard SKU's... MSRP: $650.00 $599.00. Choose Options. Quick view. Osprey 0.257 (25 cal) Prefit Barrels - …Osprey Barrel Works is a premier brand, 416RR CReS precision rifle blank. Available through Patriot Valley Arms exclusively for the long range, precision rifle market. All blanks available are in stock and contoured to order. Please allow 3-5 business days from order placement to shipment to allow us time to contour your order to the ... Product Description. The "Jet Blast" is the latest addition to Patriot Valley Arms' popular muzzle brake line-up. It brings a welcome addition to the line of brakes known for excellent recoil reduction, easy installation, and excellent manufacturing quality. The "Jet Blast" ports are optimized for precision rifles and approved for use up to 300 ...Oct 11, 2023 · The "Jet Blast" is the latest addition to Patriot Valley Arms' popular muzzle brake line-up. It brings a welcome addition to the line of brakes known for excellent recoil reduction, easy installation, and excellent manufacturing quality. The "Jet Blast" ports are optimized for precision rifles and approved for use up to 300 Win Mag to reduce ... The Rim-X receiver from Zermatt Arm s is the latest generation of highly repeatable, smooth, exceptionally accurate Rem 700 SA patterned 22 actions for trainers. We are proud to offer our prefit barreling capabilities for these exceptional new actions. The 16 twist barrels are the award winning, PVA exclusive, hand lapped, double normalized ...The COMP-40 carries a 1 year warranty for manufacturing and material defects. Abuse and negligence by users is not warrantied, this includes swinging the tripod to extend the legs against the leg stops. Our tripod will work with the TA-3 Really Right Stuff Leveling Base and video bowl and the Anvil 30 Compact Ballhead using the 3/8"-16 mount.Nov 20, 2021 · Black Friday 2022 Sales - Patriot Valley Arms patriotvalleyarms.com There are no sale codes, I went through and modified the prices on every sale item to cut down on 'hey I forgot to enter the code, can you manually change my order" and the ever popular "your code doesn't work... oh wait, I typed it wrong" emails.  · Josh does some excellent work! Got a .223 down with him now getting a barrel put on and he is also threading my 26" .308 barrel. I only use smiths I trust and having known Josh from shooting matches and talking with him a good deal he seemed like a meticulous guy so I took a chance on Josh this year having him put a 6.5 Creedmoor on …The Patriot Valley Arms "Minuteman" barreled action is a turn-key core for a high performance long range rifle. The configuration is defined by years of dedicated long range experience in various competition, training, and hunting environments. The Minuteman configuration is a match-winning combination of the finest long range rifle components ...PVA Barrel fluting service is performed in a flood cooled CNC process to maximize the weight reduction and surface finish in the flute. Services currently include straight, right and left spiral, and diamond fluting. Heavy contour match barrels such as M24, MTU, Proof Competition typically see 14-16oz of weight reduction for a 6 or 7 flute ...Patriot Valley Arms (PVA) has a new bolt action rifle at a very attractive price point: just under $2000 for the entire rifle. This allows it to qualify for the PRS category, "Production." Package includes: - chambered in 3 or 4 different popular competition cartridges, including 6 Dasher - the new ARC "Nucleus" action - Rock Creek barrel - KRG ...Patriot Valley Arms | Sniper's Hide Forum. The Sniper's Hide App is here! Download the app DOWNLOAD. I'm about 14 weeks into my 8-10 week wait. I've emailed and left voicemail 4 times over the last few weeks hoping for the industry standard line of a few more weeks (just an update) with no reply.The Patriot Valley Arms flagship rifle, the John Hancock, is chambered in a handful of 6- and 6.5-caliber cartridges. Jeremy Jones, a spokesman for the small Pennsylvania-based gun and parts maker ...The 5-25x is the ultimate sniper scope for long-range platforms and large calibers. High power and equivalent elevation travel extend your range beyond 1,500 meters, with outstanding visibility even in lowest light. Long range scope with 34mm tube, true 25x magnification, etched glass G2B mil-dot reticle, patented DuoScale elevation with second ...Jun 2, 2017 · We're proud to present the X-Ray chassis, the result of years of careful design, thought, refinement, and hard work. X-Ray Chassis (Generation 2 Chassis) Forend: Polymer for light weight and to eliminate heat transfer to/from the shooter's hand. Mounting holes at various positions will take L2 Picatinny rails, Tripod Mount, Barrier stop, etc .Welcome to the official athletic website for the Patriot Warriors. Stay up to date with Patriot Sports schedules, team rosters, photos, updates and more.The "Ultralight Shockwave" is the latest addition to Patriot Valley Arms' popular ultralight muzzle brake line-up. It brings a welcome addition to the line of brakes known for excellent recoil reduction, easy installation, and excellent manufacturing quality. The Shockwave ports follow on the patent-pending "Blast Shadow" design we use in the ...Product Description. The "Cayuga" series is a turned copper projectile designed with the most demanding hunters in mind. These projectiles are the epitome of long range, precision hunting performance with their high BC, lower weight and sleek profiles. The bullet designs are all measured via acoustic chronograph and/or Doppler radar for the ...The AI & Sako barrel nuts are specifically designed for customers that want to convert their aging AIAE rifles to an easy change barrel type using the American Rifle Company BarLoc system. They can be used with or …The Patriot Valley Arms Barrel Nut System is designed for the DIY barrel change enthusiast. This barrel nut allows for a Tikka T3 owner to install a new barrel on their receiver in a matter of minutes with a modicum of tools.The "Ultralight Shockwave" is the latest addition to Patriot Valley Arms' popular ultralight muzzle brake line-up. It brings a welcome addition to the line of brakes known for excellent recoil reduction, easy installation, and excellent manufacturing... MSRP: $150.00 $149.00. Choose Options. 1 ...The Patriot Valley Arms "Minuteman" barreled action is a turn-key core for a high performance long range rifle. The configuration is defined by years of dedicated long range experience in various competition, training, and hunting environments. The Minuteman configuration is a match-winning combination of the finest long range rifle components ...Barrel Nut - Ruger Precision Rifle. The Patriot Valley Arms Barrel Nut System is designed for the DIY barrel change enthusiast. Since the Ruger Precision and Enhance Precision rifles have entered the market there has been a push for owners to be able to use any AR15 forend platform...The Ultralight "Jet Blast" is the latest expansion of the PVA Jet Blast line. The brake has the same recoil reduction performance as our award winning Jet Blast brake but at a 74% reduction in weight due to an ultra-high strength AL alloy. We have done extensive testing and shown a magnum erosion life on the throat to be in excess of 2x the ...If you have any questions please call the shop at (405) 753-0608 during phone hours.All Shockwave brakes are made from high strength CReS steel to sustain use on heavy magnum calibers. The Shockwave comes in several of the most popular size muzzle threads on the US and European Markets. The Shockwave brake is 1-1/8" OD x 3.4" long and accepts up to 0.8" of muzzle thread engagement length.Nov 4, 2019 · The Jet Blast Muzzle brake comes in a three port design, with baffles directed to the sides and back. The Jet 4 brakes have an additional port for a total of four, giving additional braking force. Both three and four port brakes are available with an up to 6.5mm bore, or an up to .308 bore, this gives most shooters a close enough option for ... Barrel Nut - Ruger Precision Rifle. The Patriot Valley Arms Barrel Nut System is designed for the DIY barrel change enthusiast. Since the Ruger Precision and Enhance Precision rifles have entered the market there has been a push for owners to be able to use any AR15 forend platform...Patriot Valley Arms combines quality craftsmanship and innovation to manufacture the highest quality custom rifles for shooters across all disciplines. Let the experts at Patriot Valley Arms help with that rebarrel by setting up with a drop in replacement that you can do yourself on RPR barrels, drop-in Accuracy international, …Stealth Arms 1911 Platypus17 9mm Tactical, Trijicon RMRcc Red Dot Optic Cut, FDE and Black, Compatible With Glock® 17 Style Magazines FFL Item. $ 1,999.99. SALE!See the Patriot Valley Arms article on TNF. Seneca 6.5mm 124gr G7 BC = 0.294. 130gr Jacketed bullet G7 BC = 0.280. For a 3,200fps Seneca load we have a TNF value of 0.294*3100=912. To equate that TNF value with the 130gr bullet it would need to be traveling at least 3,300 fps! Test packages of 100ct bullets are available however the best ...Product Description. Pre-fit match barrels are the way of the future and PVA has been a fundamental driver of the market in Prefits since 2014. We have streamlined the ordering process to make it easy, quick and organized.If you have any questions please call the shop at (405) 753-0608 during phone hours.The Shockwave comes in several of the most popular size muzzle threads on the US and European Markets. 5/8-24 with 6.5mm aperture (Standard) 5/8-24 with 30cal aperture (Standard) 3/4-24 with 33cal aperture (Coming Soon) The Shockwave brake is 1-1/8" OD x 3.4" long and accepts up to 0.8" of muzzle thread engagement length. Weight: 6.6oz.Patriot Valley Arms Prefit Barrels Announcement and Testing | Sniper's Hide Forum. The Sniper's Hide App is here! Download the app DOWNLOAD. So I just got a call from Josh at Patriot Valley Arms letting me know they will now start offering prefits. He said he has their very first prefit barrel ready for me for testing in 6.5x47 Lapua at 26".Product Description. The "Cayuga" series is a turned copper projectile designed with the most demanding hunters in mind. These projectiles are the epitome of long range, precision hunting performance with their high BC, lower weight and sleek profiles. The bullet designs are all measured via acoustic chronograph and/or Doppler radar for the ...Product Description. Pre-fit match barrels are the way of the future and PVA has been a fundamental driver of the market in Prefits since 2014. We have streamlined the ordering process to make it easy, quick and organized. Our match prefits have been winning matches, setting records and harvesting game for years.Product Description. The Zero Compromise Optic ZC420 is the ultimate solution for all your target engagement requirements. With a generous low end of 4X boasting a massive field of view of 28 feet, your close range needs are fulfilled. Topping out at 20X gives ample magnification for your long range target engagements out to and beyond 1000 ...07-Jan-2016 ... I recently had Patriot Valley Arms of Exton, PA build me a 6.5x47 Lapua for a match PRS rig. I'll say Josh is the real deal.Product Description. Pre-fit match barrels are the way of the future and PVA has been a fundamental driver of the market in Prefits since 2014. We have streamlined the ordering process to make it easy, quick and organized.See the Patriot Valley Arms article on TNF. Seneca G7 BC = 0.294. 130gr Jacketed bullet G7 BC = 0.280. For a 3,200 fps Seneca load we have a TNF value of 0.294*3100=912. To equate that TNF value with the 130gr bullet it would need to be traveling at least 3,250 fps!Mar 3, 2021 · SOLD Osprey Barrel Works (Patriot Valley Arms) Carbon Fiber 16.5” 6.5 Creedmoor Barrel for Bighorn TL3/SR3/Orgin $600. Blaze2020; Jul 28, 2023; Buy - Sell - Trade ; The Patriot Valley Arms Barrel Nut System is designed for the DIY barrel change enthusiast. Since the Ruger Precision and Enhance Precision rifles have entered the market there has been a push for owners to be able to use any AR15 forend platform... $40.00. Add to Cart. Quick view ...The wrench is considered to be expendable in an abuse event. This is to avoid damaging a high dollar, custom action. Damage to the wrench due to mis-use, abuse or negligence is not in any way warrantied by Patriot Valley Arms. Similarly, damage to a receiver thru mis-use, abuse, or neglience with our receiver wrench is also not warrantied in ...These barrels are the award winning, PVA exclusive, hand lapped, double normalized cut rifled, 5R barrels that we specify from Rock Creek. They are all stainless and exceptionally high quality blanks that we contour in house using a proprietary process. Just select the cartridge, barrel details and the action you want to fit the barrel to.The Ultralight "Jet Blast" is the latest expansion of the PVA Jet Blast line. The brake has the same recoil reduction performance as our award winning Jet Blast brake but at a 74% reduction in weight due to an …We strongly recommend shipping insurance for the cost of your firearms and you must send it SIGNATURE REQUIRED. If you have any questions feel free to mail us at [email protected] or call at 484-696-7874.We ordered a PV40 tripod from Patriot Valley Arms and did not receive the ball head. My wife called on the Monday before Christmas and spoke to the owner to make sure it would arrive in time for Christmas. He said that they were confident that it would arrive before Christmas and that there was no need to expedite the package.How it works: 1.Select the options below using the drop down menu to select your action, chamber, finish length, and muzzle treatment. 2. Add the product to your cart with the compatible barrel. 3.The barrel will be drop shipped to Patriot Valley Arms, cut to your specs and then shipped to your door.The AI & Sako barrel nuts are specifically designed for customers that want to convert their aging AIAE rifles to an easy change barrel type using the American Rifle Company BarLoc system. They can be used with or …Patriot Valley Arms Prefit Barrels Announcement and Testing | Sniper's Hide Forum. The Sniper's Hide App is here! Download the app DOWNLOAD. So I just got a call from Josh at Patriot Valley Arms letting me know they will now start offering prefits. He said he has their very first prefit barrel ready for me for testing in 6.5x47 Lapua at 26".Osprey's are, in a nutshell, a high end precision rifle barrel blank. The blanks are 100% produced on modern CNC equipment from 416R CReS (Corrosion Resistant Steel) aka Stainless. They are 6 groove barrels with a proprietary cross section profile that shoots long, heavy for caliber, precision rifle bullets extremely well with an advantage ...The Patriot Valley Arms Barrel Nut System is designed for the DIY barrel change enthusiast. This barrel nut allows for a Tikka T3 owner to install a new barrel on their receiver in a matter of minutes with a modicum of tools.All OBW 6mm Barrels are 1:7tw 0.237 bore barrels for the best performance with the heaviest jacketed bullets and the modern, high performance solid bullets. Just select the cartridge, barrel details and the action you want to fit the barrel to. If you have a custom throating request please let us know at the time of order so that we can ...Patriot Valley Arms 792 Dorlan Mill Rd. Downingtown, PA 19335. Accounts & Orders. Wishlist; Login or Sign Up; Shipping & Returns. [email protected].Rim-X Prefit Barrels - 22LR 1:12 ELR blanks. Pre-fit The good folks at Patriot Valley Arms helped get me started down this road, what seems like a very long time ago. Good people and good products are the norm for PVA. I was given the opportunity to test drive PVA’s new 6.5 line of solid hunting bullets. Hunting is my bread and butter, so … Continue reading PVA Cayuga Solid Copper Hunting Bullets →Rock Creek 338 caliber Blanks - All Contours, Cut Rifled. Was: $375.00. Now: $329.00. Out of stock. Patriot Valley Arms official website is htt The Sniper's Hide App is here! Download the app DOWNLOAD. We ordered a PV40 tripod from Patriot Valley Arms and did not receive the ball head. My wife called on the Monday before Christmas and spoke to the owner to make sure it would arrive in time for Christmas. He said that they were confident that it would arrive before Christmas and that ... In-stock, ready to ship prefits from the premier prefit com...

Continue Reading